Funded under Section 12.1 of the Railway Safety Act (RSA), the Grade Crossing Closure Program (GCCP) provides a grant of $5,000 for the closure of a private crossing. Railroad Rehabilitation & Improvement Financing (RRIF) The Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act was enacted on December 4, 2015. Several issues are important to highway-rail grade crossing safety and operations that either were not specifically covered in previous chapters.
FHWA - Railroad- Highway Grade Crossing Handbook. IOverview. The purpose of the Railroad- Highway Grade Crossing Handbook—Revised Second Edition is to provide a single reference document on prevalent and best practices as well as adopted standards relative to highway- rail grade crossings.
Crossing Boundaries (Grades 7 and 8) Crossing Boundaries supports core curriculum in social studies and art by encouraging seventh- and eighth-grade students to. Offices Leland Building 527 East Capitol Avenue, Springfield, IL 62701 Michael A. Bilandic Building 160 North LaSalle, Ste. C-800, Chicago, Illinois 60601 Compliance. Pleasant Crossing Elementary School (PCES) is located in Whiteland, Indiana.
The handbook provides general information on highway- rail crossings; characteristics of the crossing environment and users; and the physical and operational improvements that can be made at highway- rail grade crossings to enhance the safety and operation of both highway and rail traffic over grade crossings. The guidelines and alternative improvements presented in this handbook are primarily those that have proven effective and are accepted nationwide.
The revised second edition of the handbook supersedes the Railroad- Highway Grade Crossing Handbook— Second Edition published in September 1. This update includes materials that were included in the previous version of the handbook, supplemented with new information that was available at the time of the update. Decisions regarding the selection, configuration, modification, and construction of improvements at highway- rail grade crossings should reflect the policies and standards of the affected railroad(s) and involved jurisdictions, including state- level agencies, and should address these specific requirements in applying the general principles and practices provided in this manual. A. Introduction to Highway- Rail Grade Crossings. The highway- rail grade crossing is unique in that it constitutes the intersection of two transportation modes, which differ in both the physical characteristics of their traveled ways and their operations. Railroad transportation in the United States had its beginning during the 1. Today, railroads are major movers of coal; ores; minerals; grains and other farm products; chemicals and allied products; food and kindred products; lumber and other forest products; motor vehicles and equipment; and other bulk materials and products.
In addition, railroads contribute to the movement of non- bulk intermodal freight, which also moves by water and highway during the journey from origin to destination. Finally, although few privately- operated passenger services operate on Class I railroads, publicly- funded long distance, corridor, and commuter services as well as light- rail transit lines all may operate through grade crossings. As additional railroad lines were built and extended, they facilitated the establishment and growth of towns in the midwest and west by providing a relatively rapid means of transporting goods and people.
Towns depended on the railroads and, therefore, were developed along railroad lines. The federal government and certain states encouraged westward expansion of the railroads and supported them financially by land grants and loans. The federal government enjoyed reduced freight rates on its cargoes for many years as a result of these land grants. In the east, railroads were built to serve existing towns and cities. Many communities wanted a railroad, and certain concessions were made to obtain one. Railroads were allowed to build their tracks across existing streets and roads at grade, primarily to avoid the high capital costs of grade separations.
As people followed the railroads west, there was a need for new highways and streets, most of which, primarily for economic reasons, crossed the railroads at grade. Table 1. Railroad Line Miles and Track Miles. Year. Line miles. Track miles. 19. 29. Source: “Railroad Facts.” Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, 2. The number of railroad line miles grew until a peak was reached in 1. Track miles are defined as the total centerline length of mainline trackage in a corridor.
The number of railroad line miles and track miles has been decreasing since the 1. Table 1. Initially, safety at highway- rail grade crossings was not considered a problem.
Trains were few in number and slow, as were highway travelers who were usually on foot, horseback, horse- drawn vehicles, or cycles. By the end of the century, crossing collisions were increasing and communities became concerned about safety and delays at crossings. Many states, cities, and towns adopted laws, ordinances, and regulations that required the railroads to eliminate some crossings and provide safety improvements at others.
Highway- rail grade crossings became more of a concern with the advent of the automobile in the early 1. By 1. 92. 0, vehicles traveled approximately 4. Vehicle miles of travel increased more than 6.
The purpose of the Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Handbook—Revised Second Edition is to provide a single reference document on prevalent and best.
Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Handbook. This handbook provides general information on railroad-highway crossings, including characteristics of the. This students safety program for Pre K to Grade 2 teaching bus safety tips. Stop bullying and teach other safety tips with these school bus videos. Article about: Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency program, CREATE, Amtrak, Association of American Railroads, BNSF, Belt Railway Co.
More recently, vehicle miles of travel have been increasing at a rate of approximately 3. Road mileage also grew during those 8. The number of highway- rail grade crossings grew with the growth in highway miles. In cities and towns, the grid method of laying out streets was utilized, particularly in the midwest and west. A crossing over the railroad was often provided for every street, resulting in about 1.
In 2. 00. 5, there were 2. This equates to approximately 2. Crossings are divided into categories.
Public crossings are those on highways under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a public authority and open to the traveling public. In 2. 00. 5, there were 1. Private crossings are those on roadways privately owned and utilized only by the landowner or licensee. There were 9. 7,3. Pedestrian crossings are those used solely by pedestrians.
There were 3,1. 62 pedestrian crossings in 2. Sixty- one percent, or 9.
For both urban and rural areas, the majority of crossings are located on local roads, as depicted in Table 2. Twenty- one percent of public at- grade crossings are located on federal- aid highways, as shown in Table 3. Safety and Operations at Highway- Rail Grade Crossings.
National statistics on crossing collisions have been kept since the early 1. Accident Reports Act of 1.
The act required rail carriers to submit reports of collisions involving railroad personnel and railroad equipment, including those that occurred at crossings. Not all crossing collisions were reported because the railroads were required to report only those collisions that resulted in. Public At- Grade Crossings by Functional Classification, 2. Functional classification.
Number. Rural. Interstate*4. Other principal arterial. Minor arterial. 3,5. Major collector. 11,1. Minor collector. 8,8.
Local. 65,5. 15. Not reported. Total – Rural. 90,2.
Urban. Interstate* and other limited access. Other principal arterial.
Minor arterial. 10,2. Collector. 10,3. 84. Local. 31,0. 39. Total – Urban. Grand total. 14. 7,8. Note: Crossings classified as “Interstate” are typically located on ramps. Source: Unpublished data from Federal Railroad Administration.
Table 3. Public At- Grade Crossings by Highway System, 2. Highway System. Number. Interstate*2. 46. Federal- aid. 31,0. Non- federal- aid. National Highway System.
Not reported. 10. Total. 14. 7,8. 05*Note: Crossings classified as “Interstate” are typically located on ramps.
Source: Unpublished data from Federal Railroad Administration. These reporting requirements remained essentially the same until 1. Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) redefined a reportable highway- rail grade crossing collision. Under the new guidelines, any impact “between railroad on- track equipment and an automobile, bus, truck, motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, pedestrian or other highway user at a rail- highway crossing” must be reported. Table 4 gives the number of fatalities occurring at public highway- rail grade crossings from 1. Also shown separately are fatalities resulting from collisions involving motor vehicles.
Table 5 provides data on the number of collisions, injuries, and fatalities at public highway- rail grade crossings for the period from 1. Collisions and injuries from 1.
The variation in the number of motor vehicle fatalities appears to be related to various occurrences over the years. From 1. 92. 0 to 1. During the early four- year period of the depression, railroad expenditures for crossing improvements lagged, and the number of motor vehicle fatalities increased. Starting in 1. 93. During the war period of the 1. Since 1. 94. 6, federal aid has increased, and the number of motor vehicle fatalities at crossings has been decreasing correspondingly.
During the period between 1. A national concern for crossing safety developed, as witnessed by national conferences to address the increase in casualties. Congress responded by establishing a categorical funding program for crossing safety improvements in the 1.
Highway Act. This categorical safety program was extended in the 1. Highway Act and the 1. Surface Transportation Acts. The result of this safety program and other emphases on crossing safety is demonstrated in Tables 4 and 5, which show the dramatic reduction in the number of fatalities involving motor vehicles. Table 4. Fatalities at Public Crossings, 1. Year. All fatalities. Motorvehiclefatalities.
Year. All fatalities. Motorvehiclefatalities. Year. All fatalities. Motorvehiclefatalities.
Source: Federal Railroad Administration Safety Data Website (safetydata. Approximately 6. 3 million motor vehicle traffic collisions occurred in 2. Crossing collisions accounted for 0. However, the severity of crossing collisions demands special attention. In 2. 00. 2, there were 3. Therefore, crossing fatalities accounted for 0.
One out of every 1. In addition to the possibility of a collision between a train and a highway user, a highway- rail grade crossing presents the possibility of a collision that does not involve a train. Non- train collisions include rear- end collisions in which a vehicle that has stopped at a crossing is hit from the rear; collisions with fixed objects such as signal equipment or signs; and non- collision accidents in which a driver loses control of the vehicle.
Table 5. Collisions, Fatalities, and Injuries at Public Crossings, 1. Year. Collisions.
Fatalities. Injuries. Source: Federal Railroad Administration Safety Data Website (safetydata.